An antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7, noggin has been implicated in osteoblastic response induced by the bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Besides noggin, sclerostin and uterine sensitization-associated gene 1 protein (USAG-1) have been reported to be antagonists. So I wish to raise the following three questions:

1. Have we already identified all BMP-7 antagonists?

2. If not, is as-yet-unidentified antagonist dimeric like noggin or monomeric like USAG-1?

Now let us restrict our attention to human normal prostate, where BMP type ⅠB and Ⅱ receptors are expressed.

3. Can we determine the stoichiometry and assembly of the protein complex composed of full-length human BMP-7-noggin-sclerostin-USAG-1-BMP type ⅠB receptor-type Ⅱ receptor with or without as-yet-unidentified antagonist using AFM in solution?

Addendum primum:

I have just found this paper slightly surprising.

Addendum secundum:

I have just noticed this paper.

Addendum tertium:

Does human anti-dorsalizing morphogenic protein exist?

Addendum quartum:

I have just found this paper a bit surprising.

Addendum quintum:


I have fixed the links pointing to ExPASy.